Shockwave-Sound Blog and Articles
Where can I find royalty-free rap music with vocals / lyrics?

Where can I find royalty-free rap music with vocals / lyrics?

We received this question through our support contact form yesterday. A customer was looking for stock music / production music library of vocal rap music. Whilst we do have some music in this category for royalty-free licensing and immediate download, it may not be obvious exactly where to find it, as in our “Urban Styles: Hip Hop” genre, you will find mostly instrumental hip-hop / rap music.

To license music with rapping / hip-hop with vocals/lyrics, do this:

  1. Go to our site www.Shockwave-Sound.com
  2. On the left hand side of the website, click “Music Genres”
  3. Click the genre “Music with vocals/lyrics” (at the time of writing this, it is the very first choice on the Music Genres panel).
  4. Another panel with sub-genres will be shown. From this panel, click “Vocal Hip-Hop / Rap“.
Mechanical Rights administration and stock music / production music

Mechanical Rights administration and stock music / production music

As I’m writing this article, my target audience is composers / musicians who would like to get into the business of writing music for stock music / production music, and who does not yet fully understand the way in which the administration of your Mechanical Rights through an organization such as GEMA, MCPS, STEMRA etc. basically prevents you from being able to sell / license your music as stock music.

To manufacture a disc that contains music, you need to obtain the Mechanical Rights.

 

First of all, what are Mechanical Rights administration organizations?

Many composers, at one time or another, decides to join one or more societies or organizations that help them to police and administer their rights as a composer. Such organizations include ASCAP, BMI, SESAC, PRS, MCPS, GEMA, SIAE, BUMA/STEMRA, TONO, APRA and many others.

Some of these organizations administer Performing Rights (meaning your right to some income when your music is performed in public or broadcast on TV/Radio), whilst other organizations administer Mechanical Rights (meaning your right to some income when your music is duplicated on physical media such as DVD, Blu-Ray, CD).

Then there are some organizations that administer both Performing Rights and Mechanical Rights.

Mechanical Rights is where the conflict with stock music / production music happens.Why? Because the license sold by the stock music website / production music library overlaps with the exclusive administration that you have assigned to the Mechanical Rights organization when you joined them as a member.

When a stock music site / production music library sells a track to a customer, they sell a license which allows the customer to put the music in a film/game, and then to go ahead and make physical copies of this film/game. For example, at Shockwave-Sound.com when you buy the Standard License for a track, you may put the music to a film/game and then manufacture up to 5,000 copies of that product. For more than 5,000 copies, you need the Extended License. Most other stock music sites operate with something similar, although perhaps slightly different license configurations. The stock music site sells a license to the customer, which includes mechanical reproduction rights.

The issue here is that, if you are a member of an organization that administers your Mechanical Rights, then that organization has the exclusive administration of your Mechanical Rights, and that organization is the only one that can issue such a license.

With Performing rights this problem doesn’t come up, because the stock music site doesn’t get involved with the performing license. The License that the stock music site sells is a Sync License (the right to put your music to film or other media) and a Mechanical License (the right to reproduce physical copies of that film or other media).

If that film should end up being broadcast on TV or in a cinema, your Performing Rights organization should collect performing royalties for you and you will get these royalties from your Performing Rights organization — but this doesn’t really affect the stock music customer / user in any way, because these royalties come from annually paid blanket license fees that broadcasters pay to the Performing Rights organization in their own country.

To sum up, if you are a member of an organization that administers your Mechanical Rights, you cannot have your music sold as stock music / production music from Shockwave-Sound.com or from other stock music sites. Any company that sells your track to a customer and thereby allows that customer to manufacture physical copies of your music, is doing so in violation of the exclusive Mechnical Rights administration that you have assigned to the Mechanical Rights organization when you signed the contract with them.

When I first started out in the stock music business, I was both the composer and also the stock music business owner. I was a member of PRS (Performing Rights Society) and MCPS (Mechanical Copyright Protection Society) which are the UK organization for Performing Rights and Mechanical Rights respectively.

One day I got a telephone call from an Italian customer. She had licensed my music track from my website, used it in a film, had the film put to DVD, manufactured 10,000 copies of that film in a professional DVD pressing plant, and a few weeks later she received a huge invoice from SIAE, the Italian organization who looks after both Performing Rights and Mechanical Rights in Italy. The bill she got was for Mechanical Reproduction Rights for 10,000 copies of my music, and the bill was many times larger than the amount that she had paid me to license the music from my stock music site.

It was this episode that really made me sit up and force myself to learn about these different rights and organizations, and how they affected my ability to license my music as stock music. After a bit of to and from, I believe I managed to talk MCPS into letting the client off the hook so she didn’t have to pay after I explained the whole thing as a misunderstanding to MCPS and SIAE, the Italian rights collections society.

I ended up quitting my MCPS membership but remaining a member PRS. Since then, I’ve had no problem. Since terminating my contract with MCPS, there is no longer any organization that has the exclusive administration of my Mechanical Rights.

  • In USA, I believe all three societies: ASCAP, BMI and SESAC are all Performing Rights based and do not administer Mechanical Rights (somebody correct me if I’m wrong?)
  • In the UK, the organization for Performing Rights is called PRS For Music and the organization for Mechanical Rights is called MCPS. If you are a member of PRS, you may want to check if you also joined MCPS at the same time.
  • In Italy you’re dealing with SIAE and in Germany you have GEMA, and I believe both of these are organizations that take care of both Performing Rights and Mechanical Rights, so really if you are member of SIAE or GEMA, you can’t have your music sold as stock music — although you may be able to sign a special addendum to the Agreement that you have with them, which would make them administer only your Performing Rights, and not your Mechanical Rights – you need to contact GEMA/SIAE to inquire about this.
  • In the Netherlands, I believe BUMA is for the Performing Rights and STEMRA is for Mechanical Rights, so you may want to make sure that you have signed a contract only with BUMA, and not with STEMRA.
  • Sweden, Denmark and Norway each have their own organizations for Performing Rights (STIM, KODA and TONO respectively), but they share one Mechanical Rights organization called Ncb (Nordic Copyright Bureau) which administers Mechanical Rights. So if you want to try to sell your music as stock music, make sure you’re not in Ncb.

If you have specific and confirmed information about similar situations with the organizations in other countries than the ones I have mentioned above, please feel free to comment below. If it’s good info, I will include it here in the main article too.

Keeping track of music copyrights – the difference between Sound Recording ownership and Composition ownership

Keeping track of music copyrights – the difference between Sound Recording ownership and Composition ownership


We received a question by email today which I set about answering in the shortest and clearest way I could. I think it could be a useful piece of information for anybody looking to “use” music in any way, be it for school, for your company, in a public place, and so on.

So the question was something along the lines of:

“I’m going teach music in an online course, it’s a school project. I’ll be playing the music myself. Do I need  to buy license? Or can I just go ahead and do that, without paying anybody anything?”

And the answer is:

Whenever you want to use music for anything other than just personal listening, there are two copyrights to think about: (1) the composition, (2) the sound recording.

Let’s start with looking at the sound recording. I understand that you just wish to play the music yourself, and not use existing sound recordings. So the sound recordings will be of you yourself playing your instrument(s), which means that you in fact will own the sound recording.

Then there is the composition. Any composer who has composed a piece of music automatically owns the copyright to that composition. If you want to distribute, play in public or in any other way exploit a piece of music that another person has composed, you need to get permission/license from that person or his representative.

However, when a composer dies, 70 years* pass and then the composition turns into Public Domain. The copyright in the composition “goes away” 70 years* after the death of the composer. So if you are dealing with traditional folk songs or classical music that was composed hundreds of years ago, there are no copyrights in the compositions.

(* The period of 70 years is correct for USA. For other countries, the period may be longer or shorter. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries%27_copyright_length for a list of how long it takes, in different countries, from a composer dies until his compositions turns into Public Domain.)

The composition in the sound recording never expires in the same way as the composition does. There is no period of time after which the sound recording turns to Public Domain. It never does. It continues to be owned by the sound recording copyright owner in perpetuity.

If you are not using existing/copyrighted sound recordings, and you are not using compositions that are under copyright, then you don’t need a license of any sort. You can just go ahead and play, record and distribute the music as you wish.

However, if you are going to use a sound recording that already exists, or use a composition that is still under copyright, then you need to obtain a license for that.

The Cost of Music – A Filmmaker’s Guide to Cutting Costs on Soundtracks & Scores

The Cost of Music – A Filmmaker’s Guide to Cutting Costs on Soundtracks & Scores

Professional and semi pro filmmakers are aware of the huge impact a great music score can make on their production. But the temptation is to cut costs on music so that more of the budget can be invested in the costly visual & post production side of film making.

 

So how do you trim your music budget without compromising the quality of the score?

Here we offer some tips and tricks on the best way to reduce costs while making sure that your score has the maximum impact on your audience.

Hiring a Composer

There are a number of different ways to add music to a film production. The director could hire a composer & liaise with him or her on every aspect of the score. Together they could spot the various scenes that require added emotional impact & discuss the hiring of an orchestra & specialist musicians to add reality and depth to the music. But all this freedom and flexibility comes at a cost. For a feature length documentary a professional composer’s fee could be up to $30,000 (Danny Elfman costs a little more!) and hiring an orchestra can be a drain on money and time, with sessions adding two or three weeks to recordings and in some cases doubling the allocated budget. However, for some directors a ‘gun-for-hire’ composer may be a necessary expense. This way they can ensure that they will receive personal input on their score, and be able to liaise with the composer if things don’t sound exactly how they’d imagined.

So hiring a composer is flexible & can add a unique quality to the production. But there are also many other options to consider.

Using Published Music

In terms of cost, placing published commercial music in your film is undoubtedly the most expensive solution. Permission needs to be granted by the songwriter (through the publisher) as well as the performer (through the record label). Hiring a rights lawyer to clear permission is only part of the expense. Both publisher and record label will have entirely separate agendas that will conspire to maximise income from their release. And the more a director sets his sights on a particular song, the more expensive they will make it to grant permission.

If a film includes published music without clearing it first, there may be penalties later. The more successful a film becomes, the more costly the penalties are once the clearance problem has been identified, with fees being based on the amount of screenings at film festivals, theatres and on video sharing sites.

There is also the issue of content. Many publishers will refuse clearance due to the religious, sexual or violent nature of the film’s content. Without knowing this, negotiations may have already begun and with a music lawyer on an hourly rate it’s easy to see how clearance issues can soon send the budget spiralling out of control.

Unless there’s no option, it’s sensible for directors to steer clear of published commercial releases in their score.

Using Stock Music

Stock music (AKA library music or production cues) may not be the most flexible way to score a film, but it’s certainly one of the most cost effective. Contemporary stock music is often tailor made for such projects, whereby a central musical theme will have been edited into suitable durations and incidental underscores so that the filmmaker can choose an off-the-shelf solution that is effective and compelling.

Many of today’s stock music producers are themselves film & TV composers which means they have the necessary experience and resources to turn out lush, intricate cues that predict many of the key emotional states expressed in the narrative arc of a typical high end feature film.

Adventure, melodrama, comedy, documentary. Most styles are catered for and often the only drawback is the amount of choice facing a director when he begins his search.

To get the best music filmmakers will need to visit the best and most reputable sites and libraries.

And the better the catalogue, the more expensive the music becomes. However that’s generally a sign of good quality. And whatever the cost, it will be a fraction of the fee for a composer.

And stock music also comes with one huge advantage. If purchased from a reputable site or catalogue, the cost incurred will also include an extensive license. This could include worldwide usage and limitless reproduction in perpetuity. So the director is able to curb costs on music supervisors, lawyers, composers, orchestras and musicians as well as instantly gaining access to all the paperwork required for music rights, copyright and distribution. All this will be included in the license. Saving them time, money and lots of future headaches when the film is distributed worldwide.

On the downside, the score won’t be exclusive. Other filmmakers can access the same music. But if it locks in perfectly with the narrative of a film, then however many other people use it, it will never sound exactly the same. Because of the unique combination of the music, visuals & narrative storyline of each particular project.

If you do decide to use stock music / production music, you could do a lot worse than starting right here at Shockwave-Sound.

The Final Cost

So, is stock music the most effective option for the pro and semi-pro filmmaker?

From the three options above the answer would be yes. However to score a feature length film or documentary with original stock music may require up to two hours of cues, which could end up being expensive. Thankfully, many catalogues release collections with many tracks of similar themes or a complete narrative arc. This greatly reduces the cost of buying each track individually.

As for quality vs. price, it’s worth considering that very few scores are made up of tracks that have been downloaded for $0.99!

Other Options

Public domain music is music with lapsed copyright. Some very interesting music has entered the public domain, particularly from the 1920’s and 30’s and it’s a good resource for eclectic and unusual recordings that may spark the imagination. Blues, swing, ragtime and a lot of contemporary music that is out of copyright. It’s worth spending time listening to what’s out there.

However, it’s sometimes unclear as to whether the performance rights are in the public domain as well as the rights to the composition. If one or other remains under copyright, it will present unforeseen problems if a director is set on using a specific recording of the music.

What they do in Hollywood


Director John Carpenter composed the score for many of his own films

Sometimes directors choose to score the film themselves. Legendary Hollywood director John Carpenter has provided the score for sixteen of his major motion pictures including Dark Star, Assault on Precinct 13 and Halloween. David Lynch is also a director who often performs and is deeply involved in the musical scores of his own feature films such as Mulholland Drive and Inland Empire.

Such is the importance of dramatic scores that directors will go to great lengths to get the music they want. Quentin Tarrentino wanted so much to have Gerry Rafferty’s ‘Stuck in the Middle’ for the torture scene in Reservoir Dogs that he fired the music supervisor when they couldn’t license the track. He then employed a music supervisor who got him the rights to the song and the famous scene was brought to life.

Some films employ a device called diegetic sound, where the score is made up of the naturally occurring sounds in the scene. A radio playing, a jukebox, a live band. All adding to a much more naturalistic approach rather than the more self-conscience written score.

Some scores go even further than that. The Coen Brothers’ film, No Country For Old Men had very little recognisable music at all. The score consisting of occasional tones & frequencies that were so in tune with the scene as to be unrecognisable as actual music. Often more like feedback or processed versions of the natural ambiences already present in the scene.

Martin Scorsese uses end to end published commercial music for his movie scores. Often a heady mix of Doo Wop, Phil Spectre, Motown and his favourite band, The Rolling Stones. Although recent films have unearthed buried gems like ‘Wheel of Fortune’ by Kay Star & ‘Cry’ by Johnny Ray from Shutter Island. ‘Bang Bang’ by Jo Cuba and ‘Dust My Broom’ by Elmore James from Wolf on Wall Street. As a music curator, Scorsese is creatively fearless and his hugely popular films of course have a massive budget set aside for licence fees.

All of these directors have a unique way of scoring. And it’s useful to study each director’s approach as well as the different techniques they employ to score each of their movies.

Martin Scorsese’s Shutter Island score features many obscure gems

A few more ideas

There are other options available for scoring a film or compiling a soundtrack. Filmmakers often turn to family, friends or colleagues when it comes to music production.

Unsigned bands are also a consideration. Although experience and reliability are often not their strong points.

Perhaps the most exciting score may be a combination of many of the above suggestions. One or two bespoke cues from a hired composer, alongside a number of licensed themes from Stock Music catalogues. And then some eclectic choices from public domain or unsigned bands to add some unusual and unique qualities to the production.

Whatever you decide, hopefully some of these ideas will help create an exciting and innovative score for your next creative film project.

About the author: Simon Power has made
over 50 short films and documentaries for the music technology website Sonic
State. He has also removed & replaced copyrighted music on a number
of commercial BBC releases. In these articles he offers advice and tips
about using music in your low budget film and audio/visual projects. You
can learn more about Simon and his projects at his website, http://www.meonsound.com/
Maximizing Composer Agreements

Maximizing Composer Agreements

by Kole Hicks

*First and foremost, while this may be potentially applicable across various freelance disciplines, I’d like to mention that this article is being written from the perspective of a Composer who mainly works in the Game Industry (with some additional experience in the Production Music world). Furthermore, it’s always recommended to hire legal help from an attorney with experience in your specific field of work.

We’ve all been here before, many (or dare I say “most”) of us dealing with this situation more often than we’d like. The people involved are great, the project is inspiring, but that budget… oh those numbers just don’t add up right. It’s true that most of us would prefer to keep the “creative hat” on and delegate the “business hat” to a manager or attorney. While it’s always wise to hire someone knowledgeable in the inner workings of legalese and contract construction, negotiations may cease before you even get to that point.

 

 

So in situations where the Company/Developer/Producer doesn’t have a large enough budget to cover the “standard” fees and terms of an Agreement, it’s essential that you facilitate creative negotiations that’ll be beneficial to each party. Agreeing on something that quells their budgetary concerns, while maximizing your potential benefits.

Here are a few ideas that may help you maximize the benefits in your Agreements.

I. License Your Music

The game industry has a reputation for wanting to own everything they possibly can and it’s understandable as to why, because the legal side evolved from software. It’s easier to just pay more money upfront to own something than have to deal with potential legal problems down the road. However, royalties don’t exist at the moment for Game Composers and we’re very much use to that from the Film and Television world. So how do we potentially bridge the gap?

One idea is to License the music you create so that the developer can use it in their game, but you have the option of selling or using it elsewhere after the game has shipped. There are many talking points involved in a Licensing Agreement and all of these can be negotiated. For example, what will this initial License cover?

Will it only cover usage of the composition for the game on one platform, how about any trailers or promotional videos, DLC or sequels? All of these points are negotiable and will allow you to define a License coverage (and re-licensing fees) that both parties can feel comfortable with.

II. Soundtrack and Bundles

Another idea, in addition to or replacement of a Licensing Agreement, is to retain all of the revenue from sales of the Soundtrack. If the developer doesn’t have a large enough budget to pay many of the standard fees upfront, then it may be possible to recoup (or possibly exceed) some of that monetary risk later down the line with Soundtrack sales.

Even if you’re working under a WFH Agreement I would urge you to try and hold onto as much of the soundtrack revenue as possible. It may be nearly impossible with larger companies, but smaller studios may be open to the idea. Especially if you take care of everything (perhaps using something like CD Baby) and report monthly with sales data. Eventually sending them a quarterly check based off the percentages you negotiated.

In addition to separate sales of the Soundtrack, it may be possible to negotiate a potential “Bundle” package that includes both the game and soundtrack. Usually the Soundtrack and Game are offered at a discounted rate, but the lower price tends to make up for itself in a higher number of sales. The thought behind this strategy is that a decent percentage of gamers may not ever think to buy the soundtrack separately from the game (unless they really love the music). However, if it’s offered for only a few dollars more in a bundle, then they may be more willing to part with that amount of money for additional value in the form of a soundtrack.
         

III. Exclusivity

If the developer is open to a Licensing option, then they may request that the composition you create remain exclusive to the game for a certain amount of time after the initial release. This amount of time can vary drastically and numerous factors must be considered before both parties can agree to an exclusivity period. Every month that the composition remains exclusive to the game, is another large handful of days that you can’t license it to another project or possibly sell it to a music library.

If you’re finding it difficult to agree to a specific exclusivity period, then it may be easier to write in language for two possible scenarios based off the performance of the game. If the game is doing quite well after its release then perhaps the composition shall remain exclusive for a little bit longer; however if sales/downloads of the game are lacking then it would only be fair that the exclusivity period be shortened.

Furthermore, it’s essential that you get a clear answer on the actual release date of a project, as many modern games (especially PC) will release an Open Beta yet still charge customers or have already implemented monetization. By traditional definitions this could be considered a full release, but the company may not see it that way, so make sure to get an official release date in writing if you plan on re-licensing the composition after the exclusivity period.

IV. Revisions and Creative Control

Revisions and iterations are a part of any creative process, but some developers (if not restrained) can micromanage a piece of music into the ground. That is why it’s essential to write in a specific number of revisions on a single piece of music into the Agreement. Any revisions over that amount should warrant additional compensation. I personally like 3 revisions and work that into as many of my Agreements as possible. It’s a high enough number to facilitate efficient feedback so I can create something special that resonates with the developer, but also low enough to guarantee that any overly extraneous work or revision requests are additionally compensated for.

Furthermore, based on the budget of the project and what you can negotiate, it may be possible to retain creative control over the music’s direction. This not only gives you the power to revise cues at your own pace, but also the additional benefit of deciding on the overall palette/feel/goal of the music. Obviously this would require an enormous amount of trust from a developer, but in the right situation it’s possible and very much worth pursuing.

V. Right of First Refusal and Future collaborations

Sometimes if a project doesn’t have an adequate music budget, but is currently pursuing funding/investors, then they may (at some point in the middle of development) acquire additional monies for the game’s development. In this situation, it’s essential that you write in the Right of First Refusal on creating (or re-creating) any of the music for the game. It’s hard to imagine a developer disrespecting all of the time you’ve invested up to that point and throwing you by the wayside for another Composer, but it can happen and is best to have covered.

Furthermore, in some micro-budget situations it may be pertinent to write in language that guarantees you to be hired for any sequels, ports, DLC, or maybe even wholly different projects. All of which are assumed possible because of the original game’s financial success, at which point you should be rewarded for your investment.

VI. Bonuses

Lastly, but certainly not least, as there are tons of options I’ve yet to mention, we have the option of writing in Bonuses into the contract. The traditional bonus structure is based off the number of units sold and is usually attached to a specific dollar amount the Composer shall receive.

However, it’s entirely possible to base the bonus structure off of different goals like: Total downloads, Youtube Video Hits (if you did the Trailer/Promo music), etc. Furthermore, the bonus compensation could be a specific dollar amount, or (if the developer would like to make sure it gets invested right back into the quality of the game) then perhaps it could go into the funding of live recordings. Paying for professionals like a recording engineer, studio, session musicians, mixer, etc. All of this should be on top of your initial creative fee of course.

In a world of diminishing music budgets for projects of all sizes, I hope you’ve found this article helpful. We don’t always have to just accept an Agreement with the provisions written in by the Company / Producer / Developer. It’s guaranteed that those provisions heavily favor them and if they don’t have an adequate budget to pay for the lack of beneficial provisions for you, then you have the prerogative to suggest creative solutions. Thanks for reading and I wish you all the best in your future Agreement negotiations!


About
the author:
Kole Hicks is an Author, Instructor, and most prominently
an Audio Designer with a focus in Games. He’s had the pleasure of
scoring mobile hits like ‘Bag it!’, has provided audio for Indie PC
titles like ‘Kenshi’ and ‘Jeklynn Heights’, and was nominated for a 2012
GANG award for an article written exclusively for Shockwave-Sound.com
titled, “Mixing as Part of the Composing Process. Emotionally Evocative
Music & Visceral Sound Effects… Kole Audio Solutions.